Pol 266: A little bit of cultcha’


Art & architecture

(And not in this time period, but a good resource on the ‘Degenerate Art’ exhibition of 1937: A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust: Degenerate Art, Univ of South Florida)


Pol 266: Notes

As promised, here are my notes for Schmitt’s fourth chapter:

Ch 4 Irrationalist Theories of the Direct Us of Force [65-76]
65: note that this is about ideal circumstances, in order to see moral predicament, and strength, of parl
-even if Marxist dictatorship of proletariat could be rational, really, theories of direct action & use of force rely on irrationalism
. . . -in reality, multiple movements & tendencies may coexist
. . . . .-eg, that Bolsheviks destroyed anarcho-syndicalists doesn’t mean don’t share a chain of thought
66: -perhaps Bolsheviks succeeded in Russia b/c its proles lacked a Euro understanding [of themselves]
. . .-yes, shared a fondness for [rationalist] force w the Jacobins & Soviet edu a kind of ‘radical educational dictatorhip’, but its use of force was also motivated by irrationalism
. . . . .-a ‘new belief in instinct and intuition that lays to rest every belief in discussion & would also reject the possibility that mankind could be made ready for discussion thru educational dictatorship’
-so, consider Sorel’s Reflections on Violence, which ‘reflections on the use of force is a theory of unmediated real
67: life
-Proudhon & Bakunin against all systematic unity, uniformity, parl, bureaucracy, military, police, religion
. . .-the state and God alike, and both must be rejected [Pr]
. . .-Bakunin extended this: the unity of the Enlightenment & democracy must itself be rejected: ‘unity is slavery’
. . . . .-thus, struggle against state & God also against intellectualism & trad forms of education
. . . . .-reason, science, may understand the general, but it is not life & should not rule it: it sacrifices the individual to the abstraction—unlike art
. . .-thus the appeal to the working class, which expresses itself in unmediated [direct] action, thru unions & the strike
68:  . . . . .-and in that direct action, a contradiction of rationalism, balancing, pub discussion, & parl
-to Sorel, the ability to act heroically reside in myth, be it Greek, ancient Christianity, revolutionary France, liberated Germany: ‘Only in myth can the criterion be found for deciding whether one nation or social group has a historical mission and has reached its historical moment.’
. . .-it is out of a genuine life instinct, not reason, that one acts, and only in fulfilling a myth that a class may find its courage to use force, to become a world-historical actor: ‘Whenever this is lacking, no social and pol power can remain standing, and no mechanical apparatus can build a dam if a new storm of historical life has broken loose.’
. . .-won’t find this sense of life among the mod bourg, anxious about money & property, & its govt’al form, liberal demos, a “demagogic plutocracy”
-so where is this life today? the socialists, with their strikes?
69: . . . -there can find the sense that could bring the whole pol & econ house down
. . .-from the prole perspective, bourg pragmatism a ‘monstrosity of cowardly intellectualism’, a dessication
. . .-against balance, get image of bloody decision battle, as in 1848, when both left & right opposed parl
. . .-and so Proudhon declared “The day of radical rejection and the day of sovereign declarations is coming”
70: the people themselves will make it so
-Sorel saw warlike heroism as ‘true impulse of an intensive life’, something which no parl could satisfy
71:  . . . -parl politics, discussion, participation only erode that life-force: ‘Whatever value human life has does not come from reason; it emerges from a state of war’
. . .-rev excitement & ‘expectations of monstrous catastrophes’ drive life & history, & can only come from the masses themselves, never intellectuals or ideologues
‘Every rationalist interpretation falsifies the immediacy of life. The myth is no utopia.’
. . .-rationalism may lead to reform, at best
. . .-nor should ‘martial elan’ be confused w militarism: must be kind of [disciplined] spontaneity: ‘Creative force that breaks loose in the spontaneity of enthusiastic masses is as a result something very different from dictatorship’
. . .-to Sorel, rationalism, centralization, uniformity, all come from rationalism
72:  . . -which leads to slavery, horror, & mechanized life, a ‘military-bureaucratic-police machine’
. . . . .-rev force, on the other hand, while it may be wild & barbaric, never systematically horrific
-the Sorelian dictatorship of the prole not merely a repetition of the ancien regime, but something new, with “violence” in place of [centralizing] power
-to respond to irrationalism, best to note discrepancies rather than its logical mistakes
73: so, for example, Sorel retained emphasis on economic class (pace Marx) & thus econ as arena of struggle
. . .-but if follow bourg into econ, must not also follow into demos & parl?
. . .-and what of rationalism of production itself: how both to intensify production and destroy it?
. . . . .-less of a problem for Marx, who was a rationalist
-the psych & historical meaning of myth undeniable, and construction of bourgeoisie out of Hegelian dialectic created an enemy worth hating
74: -the history of the image of the bourg as important as the history of the bourg itself, spreading beyond Marxism itself, which gave the world a world-historical & metaphysical enemy of humankind
-the image also migrated east, into Russia, where it met nationalism
75: ‘Prole use of force had made Russia Muscovite again’, that is, gave it back its nation
-Sorel noted that nationalism always the stronger myth: Fr, Spa, Ger
‘In national feeling, various elements are at work in the most diverse ways, in very different peoples.’
. . .-race, descent, speech, tradition, culture, education, sense of community & distinctiveness— ‘all of that tends toward a national rather than a class consciousness today’
. . .-can, of course, be combined, esp against a common enemy (eg Irish nationalists & socialists), but when in confrontation, nationalism wins, as in Mussolini’s Italy
. . . .-as it does against demo parl, as in Muss’ Italy: “We have created a myth, this myth is a belief, a noble enthusiasm; it does not need to be reality, it is a striving and a hope, belief and courage. Our myth is the nation, the great nation which we want to make into a concrete reality for ourselves.”
. . . . . .-in that speech, Muss called socialism an inferior myth
-that myth so crucial now a symptom of decline of rel rationalism of parl thought
. . .-risky, too: solidarity may fail before ever-expanding number of myths, which pol is wont to produce
-in any case, so strong that partisans of parl cannot simply say there is no alternative


Note: some of the modified-outline formatting may be a bit off (which I tried to offset with the ‘. . .’), but if you read these in conjunction with the text, it shouldn’t be a problem. The numbers on the left are page numbers.

Also, some abbreviations (probably obvious, but just in case):

  • parl: parliament, parliamentarism
  • bourg: bourgeois, bourgeoisie
  • govt: government
  • demo(s): democratic, democracy
  • rev: revolution, revolutionary
  • Fr, Spa, Ger: France, Spain, Germany

Finally,  a phrase in ‘single quotes’ is a direct quote from Schmitt; a phrase in “double quotes” is something Schmitt is quoting from another source.

Hope this helps, and good luck with your essay.

Pol 266: Maps! Maps! Maps!

The University of Texas, Austin’s Perry-Casteñeda’s Library contains a terrific online collection of maps, which you access here. Poke around—it’s a great way to waste time!

For our course purposes, I direct you to the following [set of] maps in particular:

Click on any of the maps to zoom in.

All of these maps, by the way, are taken from the 1923 edition of William Shepherd’s Historical Atlas. Again, dive into his collection to see what you can see.


Pol 150: Research tips

For tips on how to find scholarly articles, see Research & Writing, and scroll down to “How to Find Sources”—noting especially the bit about how “Google Scholar is your friend.”

For tips on how to cite scholarly articles, see the Purdue Online Writing Lab Research and Writing Citation Sources (pick any of the three styles: MLA, APA, or Chicago Manual of Style) or the University of Wisconsin Writer’s Handbook Documentation (again, pick one of the styles).

Note that when I ask for an abstract or summary of an article, I DO NOT expect you to write it yourself; instead, simply copy and paste it as it appears on your screen.

For tips on how to cite laws, proposed laws, and court decisions, see How to Cite Legal Materials or Citing Legal Materials in APA Style. (Note that if you follow the methods noted, it will be apparent to your reader (me) if the law or decision is state or federal.)

For how to cite a regulation, see the APA Style Blog The Rules for Federal Regulations.

Leh 355 S15 quiz guide

Here she be. Twenty questions will be chose from this list.

Remember, if we do not get to gene transfer in lecture, no gene transfer questions will appear on the quiz.

1. What is a gene?
2. What is an allele?
3. How many chromosomes total are contained in a cell of a member of Homo sapiens?
4. Which chromosome has the most genes and which chromosome has the fewest genes?
5. What are the base pairs of nucleotides in DNA? [spell out the words and put in pairs]
6. What is mapping?
7. What is sequencing?
8. Approximately how many genes are there in a member of Homo sapiens?
9. Distinguish between Mendelian and multifactorial traits.
10. Genes and/or traits which do not contribute to reproductive fitness may be what?
11. Traits such as personality, intelligence, & other behavioral characteristics are likely what kind of traits?
12. Gene transfer in which gametes are affected (i.e., changes passed to offspring) are known as what?
13. What is a basic problem to overcome in gene transfer?
14. List a chromosomal abnormality and its associated syndrome.
15. Name one way a chromosomal or genetic anomaly may contribute to intersex characteristics.
16. What are the three characteristics unique to all stem cells?
17. What are the three types of stem cells? [spell out the types]
18. What is pluripotency and how does it differ from multipotency?
19. What specifically is a teratoma and why does it matter in stem cell research?
20. What are the three germ layers?
21. Name one problem associated with the research or use of ESCs.
22. Name one problem associated with the research or use of  iPSCs.
23. Name one problem associated with the research or use of ASCs.
24 & 25. What are the five (or so) steps involved in ART? [simply name steps]
26. How does the process of intracytoplasmic sperm injection differ from that of in vitro fertilization?
27. What is the process of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and why is it used?
28. Name a risk associated with the use or interpretation of preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
29. Name one type of prenatal test and what it may reveal.
30. Name a risk associated with the use or interpretation of a prenatal test [name the specific test]
31. What is somatic cell nuclear transfer?
32. Name one problem or obstacle to be overcome in reproductive cloning.
33.  Distinguish between in vivo and in vitro.

Pol 266 Essay 3

Your answer should be typed, 6-8 double-space pages, and include a source citation for any ‘outside’ examples. No title pages, please: just put your name on the top of the first page. Answer ALL of the following questions in one continuous essay.

Due Thursday, December 18.

1. Banerjee & Duflo note there are two basic approaches to developmental economics: the supply-wallah side, often associated with Sachs, and the demand-wallah side, associated with Easterly. Describe each of these sides, and describe how each would approach a specific problem in TWO of the following fields a) hunger; b) public health; c) education; d) family planning;.
2. I noted in class that the risk management techniques of the very poor are different from those with more resources, in particular with regard to buffers, barriers, and liquidity. Discuss why each of these matters, and specific ways the poor may manage each of these issues.
3. What are some of the explanations offered as to why countries are poor? How does the work of Banerjee & Duflo fit into or respond to these various explanations? Which explanation(s), covered in both chapter 10 and in lecture, make the most sense to you? Why?
4. Banerjee & Duflo argue that politics is an obstacle to, rather than a way to enable, good policy—a view at odds with Crick’s insistence on the role of politics in creating the conditions for a good life. Explain why Banerjee & Duflo’s (or any) “anti-political” approach might be the best way to deal with entrenched social problems such as poverty, discrimination (of any sort), cultural conflict, etc. Then, relying on Crick, explain how an expressly political approach could work best. Which approach—anti-political, political, or combination—would you recommend to deal with such problems? Explain.