What makes us human? Is it our genes? Our minds? How we look and how we act? And if it’s any (or all) of these things, what does it mean for our humanness when we change them?
Biological and technological advances of the past forty years have opened up possibilities for changing how we look, how we reproduce, and how we think. Gene transfer (also know as genetic engineering or gene therapy) has been used to treat a variety of diseases, and stem cell research may lead to the growing of replacement organs and other body parts. Reproductive technologies have allowed infertile people to have children, and there are some children alive today who have three genetic parents. And then there are all of the experiments in neuroscience: attempts to use the brain to move objects, implants to allow those with paralysis to walk again, research on allowing people to remain awake for long periods of time, and studies on how to manipulate memory.
In this class we’ll range widely across enhancement biotechnologies, touching on human experimentation, cosmetic surgery, gene transfer, cloning, performance-enhancing drugs, medical implants, and mood-altering drugs. We’ll also consider the histories behind these techs, as well as the at-times horrific abuses associated with thinking of humans as “better” or “worse” kinds of people. Running throughout the course will be considerations of what can, ought, and ought not to be done, how do decide what is right and wrong, how much does or should religion play in these discussions, and how much control anyone ought to have over themselves—or the future.
Required reading: Reading packet, distributed by College Now
It is expected that you will complete the readings during the week they are assigned; as part of your participation grade, you may be called on in class to offer a question or comment on those readings.
Students are expected to attend all class meetings as scheduled, and are responsible for all class work missed as a result of late registration or absence. Excessive absences in any course may result in a lower final grade.
Attendance & participation: 15 pts
Approaches papers, due March 5, 15 pts
. . . Assignment 1 due March 26, 10 pts
. . . Assignment 2 due April 16, 15 pts
. . . Assignment 3 due May 7, 15 pts
Final, due May 22 30 pts
You will be given further written instructions for all assignments.
No extra credit will be available.
ALL assignments are due IN CLASS as HARD COPY on date due. Late work will be penalized.
Regarding tablets/computers: You may use for notes as long as WIFI IS TURNED OFF; please stow cell phones.
Note regarding food and drink in the classroom: Something to drink is fine, something to eat is not.
Days 1-2 February 5-7 What’s it all about?
*Readings 1-3; begin Readings 4-5
*** NO CLASS Tuesday, February 12: Lincoln’s Birthday***
Days 3-5 February 14-21 History & theories
*finish Readings 4-5; Readings 6-9
NOTE: High school is closed, but College Now classes are in session.
Days 6-7 February 26-28 Science of making us; birthin’ babies
*Readings 10-11; begin Readings 12-14
Days 8-9 March 5-7 Birthin’ babies Approaches papers due
*finish Readings 12-14; begin Readings 15-18
Days 10-11 March 12-14 Reproductive ethics & donating life
*finish Readings 15-18; begin Readings 19-20
Days 12-13 March 19-21 What do you own? Who owns you?
*finish Readings 19-20
Days 14-15 March 26-28 Science of what makes us, us Assignment 1 due
Days 16-17 April 2-4 What can you make, what can you sell, what can you give away
Days 18-19 April 9-11 When is better good and when is it not
*Readings 30-34; begin Readings 35-36
Days 20-21 April 16-18 Better and better. . . ? Assignment 2 due
*finish Readings 35-36; begin Readings 37-44
*** NO CLASS April 23 & 25: Spring Recess***
Days 22-23 April 30-May 2 Better bodies? Better minds?
*finish Readings 37-44
Days 24-25 May 7-9 Death and dying Assignment 3 due
Days 26-27 May 14-16 Death and (not) dying; What’s it all about, redux
*finish Readings 49-50
May 21 (no class) Final due
Required readings (in order of syllabus)
1. Lisa Ko, Unwanted Sterilization and eugenics programs in the United States
2. James Q Whitman, Why the Nazis studied American race laws for inspiration
3. Derek Ayeh, Bioethical silence and black lives
4-5. BBC Consequentialism; deontological ethics
6. Thomas R. McCormick, Principles of Bioethics
7. CE Harris, The Ethics of Natural Law
8. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Virtue Ethics
9. David P. Schmidt, Casuistry
10. President’s Council on Bioethics (PCB), Reproduction & Responsibility, ch. 2
11. National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), Cloning Fact Sheet
12. Sirpa Soini, et. al. The interface between assisted reproductive technologies and genetics
13. Carson Strong, The ethics of human reproductive cloning
14. PCB, Staff Working Paper, The Ethics of “Reproductive Cloning”
15. Karen Clark, Norval Glenn and Elizabeth Marquardt, My donor’s name is daddy: Recommendations
16. PCB, Reproduction & Responsibility, Exec summary, §§ III-IV
17-18. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law: Gamete and embryo donation | Surrogacy
19. Rina Hakimian & David Korn, Ownership and use of tissue specimens for research
20. R Alta Charo, Body of research—ownership and use of human tissue
21-23. NHGRI: Chromosomes | Deoxyribonucleaic acid | A brief guide to genomics
24. National Institutes of Health, Stem Cell Basics
25. Brad Plumer, et al, A simple guide to CRISPR
26. Thomas George, The case against kidney sales
27. C Erin, J Harris, An ethical market in human organs (w/Savelescu & Radcliffe commentaries)
28. Aseda Tena, Xenotransplantation: Can pigs save human lives?
29. Tim Lewis, Could 3D printing solve the organ transplant shortage?
30. PCB, Staff Working Paper, Distinguishing Therapy and Enhancement
31. J Savelescu, Genetic interventions and the ethics of the enhancement of human beings
32. F Baylis & JS Robert, The inevitability of genetic enhancement technologies
33. PCB, Beyond Therapy: Superior Performance (ch 3)
34. Darrin Belousek, Professional baseball & performance-enhancing drugs
35. Marek Kohn, Smart and smarter drugs
36. V Cakic, Smart drugs for cognitive enhancement
37. Adrienne Asch, Disability Equality and Prenatal Testing
38. Thomas Koch & Peter Singer, Ethics and disability point/counterpoint
39. Rock Ethics Institute, Disability: Prenatal Genetic Testing
40. N Curtis, Would the deliberate creation of a deaf child be morally defensible?
41. Charlotte Greenfield, Should we fix intersex children?
42. PCB, Staff working paper, Remembering and Forgetting
43. Cody Delistraty, The ethics of erasing bad memories
44. Carl Elliott, The tyranny of happiness
45. Lars Johan Materstvedt, et. al., Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide
46. Timothy Quill & Bernard Sussman, Physician assisted death
47. Richard Radtke, A Case Against Physician-Assisted Suicide
48. George Annas, ‘Culture of life’ at the bedside
49. John Harris, Immortal ethics
50. PCB, Beyond Therapy: Ageless Bodies (ch 4)